TO Sharm el-Sheikh the ministers arrive, but the eyes are focused above all on the G20 in Bali, where Joe Biden And Xi Jinping agree to restart talks between the US and China as part of international negotiations on the climate. Thus begins the second week of Cop 27, after the first seven days of slow work. The negotiators are trying to work out the draft text from agreebut there is no common vision even on the goal of not exceeding thetemperature rise to 1.5 ° C above pre-industrial levels. In the text of Glasgow that reference to the target “well below 2°C”, a legacy of the agreement by Paris to which many economies now cling. There is a first draft document on a fund for losses and damages to 2024, but the discussion is still open. Among the causes that hold back i negotiations, also the absence of China. In Bali, handshakes, smiles and a bilateral conversation between Xi and Biden is good news, but not yet a concrete answer to the issues being debated at Cop 27. For example, China’s involvement in the Global Methane Pledgea global pact launched in 2021 by the EU and the US to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030 from which, to date, the large absentees in Sharm el Sheik are excluded: China, Russia and India. What if last year Beijing and New Delhi had obtained that the concept of ‘phasing out‘ of coal, instead of the ‘elimination’ one, India is now asking for the wording ‘phasing-down’ to be extended to all combustible fossilsnot just coal. Although in the Climate Change Performance Index 2023, presented at COP27, India is in eighth place. After four countries, given that the first three positions in the ranking drawn up by Germanwatch, CAN and the NewClimate Institute in collaboration with Legambiente for Italy.
The Climate Change Performance Index – None among the States analysed (59 nations plus the European Union, representing 90% of the world’s climate-changing emissions) has reached necessary performance to remain below the threshold of 1.5 ° C. Top of the chart Denmark And Swedenin fourth and fifth place, thanks to the commitment to the abandonment of fossil sources and the development of renewable. Followed by Chile, Morocco and India stepping up climate action, despite their challenging economic situations. At the bottom of the ranking, on the other hand, exporting and user countries of combustible fossils such as Iran, Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan. China, the largest responsible for global emissions, slips to 51st place by losing thirteen positions compared to last year. Despite the great development of renewables, the Chinese emissions continue to grow due to the heavy use of coal and the low energy efficiency of the production system. In 52nd place the States United, second emitter, which however gains three positions for Biden’s new policy. At the COP, the US president announced new rules, as part of the Global Methane Pledge, to force companies to monitor emissions of methanerepair leaks quickly and limit flaring and venting of gas fossil. The first practice is to burn the excess natural gas, extracted together with the Petroleum, without energy recovery; venting is voluntary and controlled release into the atmosphere. These rules should reduce US emissions of methane (climate-altering 82.5 times higher than CO2 in the first 20 years in which it remains in the atmosphere) by 87% compared to 2005 levels. The pact was signed by 122 countries, one forty of which they would be ready for new commitments. To date, however, it is not clear who will accept what.
The climatic performances of the European Union and Italy – Among the G20 countries, only India (8 ^), United Kingdom (11th) and Germany (16th) are positioned at the top of the rankings of the Climate Change Performance Index, while the EU climbs three steps to 19th place, but is held back by the poor performance of Hungary And Poland. Germany has just announced plans to exit the ECT (Energy Charter Treaty), an arbitration system that allows fossil fuel companies to sue governments over missed profits. They already have France, Spain and the Netherlands. to penalize theItalystalled in the middle of the standings (rising from 30th to 29th place), underlines Legambiente, are “the slowdown in the development of renewables (which sees Italy 33rd in the specific ranking) and a still inadequate national climate policy. The current Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan (Pniec), in fact, allows for a cut in emissions of just 37% compared to 1990 by 2030”. Even compared to methane in recent days Legambiente has denounced and documented losses in atmosphere in some plants in Italy, emphasizing that, to date, there are no regulations imposing a constant monitoring and that the EU regulation under discussion has several limitations, also due to pressure from oil & gas companies.
Hydrocarbon companies – The ‘Global Oil & Gas Exit List’ (Gogel) drawn up by the international NGOsfrom which it emerges that, between 2020 and 2022, the global expenditure of companies for the exploration of new fields from Petroleum and gas worldwide increased by 12.4% (rising to $ 160 billion). On 685 upstream companiesthat is, who are involved in exploration and extraction, 655 have plans of expansion and there are 55 Egyptian ones that are exploring new resources. More than 500 ones that are taking steps to bring in productionbefore 2030, 230 billion barrels of oil equivalent (bboe) of untapped resources. Production and combustion of these resources alone (not to mention, therefore, the new gas pipelines, oil pipelines or LNG terminals in the pipeline) would lead to greenhouse gas emissions in atmosphere 30 times higher than the current ones of the EU.
The Global Shield is backed by Biden (which does not mention loss & damage) – In the meantime, the commitment was also presented to the COP Global Shield (Global Shield), a program born this year under the German presidency of the G7 to strengthen the regimes of protection social and insurance and help vulnerable countries recover from extreme events. Confirmed the over 170 million euros provided by Berlin, to which more than 40 million will be added from other countries. Among the first recipients BangladeshCosta Rica, FijiGhana, PakistanPhilippines and Senegal. Biden also spoke about it when he arrived at the Copafter apologizing for the exit from the Paris Agreement during the presidency Trump and recalling the $368 billion climate package (the most ambitious in US history). Biden also announced the doubling the adaptation fund (the failed promise of the 100 billion a year that the rich countries should have paid out) with 150 million dollars for Africa and the 500 million dollar partnership with the EU for green transition (whatever that means, ed) in Al-Sisi’s Egypt. But if Biden has secured his commitment to the global shield, did not mention the ‘loss & demage’ mechanism requested by the Group of 77 (130 nations) plus China. The young people of the have noticed it community indigenous who, in fact, contested it.
The first draft on loss&demage – In fact, many believe that the Global Shield is a sop to ‘trim’ ai Vulnerable countries as an alternative to what they really want, which is compensation for loss and damage suffered as a result of climate changes caused by the policies of rich countries. Harjeet Singhhead of global policy strategy at the Climate Action Network, a global network of 1,800 civil society groups, called the Global Shield “yet another distraction”. But in the meantime, one has been published on the UNFCCC website, the UN climate agency first draft document on the establishment of a loss and damage fund. As already established at COP 26, the launch of a process which will last two years and lead to the implementation of the fund in 2024. Two options are indicated: the appointment of an ad hoc commission, or less structured negotiations, entrusted to various bodies under the direction of the Unfccc.
Women and water resources – But on the day that the Cop dedicated to water resource and the role of women, both in the fight against climate change and as leaders victims of the disastrous effects of global warming, significant have been the testimonials of indigenous women of the Amazonwho denounced the violence committed “against our land and ours bodies”. “We are the main custodians of pristine forests. If women are protected – he said Helena GualingaEcuadorian environmental and human rights activist of the Kichwa Sarayaku community, a Pastaza – we will also protect the territories and ecosystems essential for climate mitigation “. It is no coincidence that Climate counselGreenpeace Brazil e Observatorio do climate have announced that they will bring before the International Criminal Court in The Hague i massacres carried out in the last decade precisely in the Amazon. Where 430 people were killed, between 2011 and 2021, in conflicts related to land and water. Not counting the more than 550 successful to survive87 of whom were tortured and about 100 turned into internal refugees.